Astronomi

Er stjerner virkelig "brændende kugler af gas"?

Er stjerner virkelig


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Selv NASAs websted omtaler stjerner som "stor kugle af gas". Det er et almindeligt udsagn, der er populært af film og populærkultur. Imidlertid er stjerner teknisk set ikke i gasform - de er i en tilstand af plasma.

Så kvalificerer stjerner sig som værende lavet af "gas" som ordsproget antyder, eller betragtes det som en misforståelse?


Mens jeg er enig i, at det koger ned til semantik, er jeg faktisk uenig i den videnskabelige brug af udtrykket i kommentarerne. I astronomi ved vi, at der er en forskel mellem gas og plasma, men vi bruger næsten altid udtrykket "gas", når vi taler om, hvad der er i stjerner. F.eks. "brøkdelen af ​​gas fastlåst i stjerner" (i modsætning til i det interstellære medium). Vi taler også om gasens metallicitet, hvilket betyder både gas og plasma. Jeg tror, ​​vi bruger kun udtrykket plasma, når vi specifikt diskuterer egenskaber, der er unikke for plasma, som at være "frossen" i magnetfelter. Og googling ["ioniseret gas" -plasma] ('-plasmaet' er for at slippe af med artikler, der forklarer, hvad plasma er) returnerer 243.000 hits, hvoraf langt det meste synes at være videnskabelige artikler og hjemmesider.

Så jeg tror svaret er: "Nej, stjerner er ikke lavet af gas, de er lavet af plasma, men fortsæt og kald det gas, du vil ikke fornærme nogen astronom."

Jeg er dog enig med Rob Jeffries i, at vi gør det ikke som når du kalder det brændende gas. Det er atomkraft! Det er en million $ ^ dolk $ gange kraftigere end ild!

$ ^ dolk $Hvorfor "en million"? Fordi nukleare reaktioner måles i MeV, mens kemiske reaktioner måles i eV.


Er stjerner virkelig & ldquoburning bolde af gas & rdquo? - Astronomi

Når du kigger op på himlen en mørk klar nat, kan du se tusindvis af stjerner skinne ned på dig. Disse stjerner er kugler med varm gas, ligesom vores sol. Lyset fra disse stjerner har rejst billioner af miles (eller mere!) For at nå dine øjne. Hvis du er heldig nok til at observere stjernerne i bjergene, i ørkenen eller ethvert sted langt fra byens lys, vil du også se en stor tåget stribe over himlen. Denne uklare stribe er en tæt samling af svage stjerner, der er så mange, at deres lys ser ud til at blande sig sammen på himlen og danne en stribe. Denne stribe kaldes Mælkevejenpå grund af dets & quotmilky & quot udseende.

En tæt samling af stjerner, gas og støv (som f.eks Mælkevejen) kaldes a Galaxy. Det Mælkevejener vores hjemmegalakse, hvis vi kunne rejse uden for Mælkevejenog se tilbage på det, ville vi se, at vores sol kun er en af ​​de mange stjerner, der udgør Mælkevejen Galaxy.

I 1925 gjorde en astronom ved navn Edwin Hubble den spændende opdagelse, at der er andre galakser i universet udover vores egne. Han brugte Cepheid-variabler (husk at dette er standardlys) opdagede afstanden til de svage, fuzzy & quotnebulae & quot; astronomer havde observeret siden slutningen af ​​1700'erne og fandt ud af at disse objekter ligger uden for vores egen galakse. Dette antydede, at & quotnebulae & quot ikke egentlig var tåger overhovedet, men individuelle galakser. Hubble studerede strukturen i disse galakser og grupperede dem i tre hovedklasser:

Galakser er interessante at undersøge, ikke kun fordi de indeholder store mængder stjerner og støv (og andre solsystemer!), Men også fordi de interagerer og kolliderer. Sådanne interaktioner forårsager store forstyrrelser i selve galakserne. De gør galakser til dynamiske, spændende steder at besøge gennem videnskabens øjne.

Når du har gennemgået disse sektioner, kan du prøve et par eksempler på spørgsmål for at teste din forståelse. Disse spørgsmål er typiske for spørgsmål, der gives i indledende astronomikursuseksaminer. De er kun beregnet til at give dig en idé om, hvilke slags spørgsmål der MÅ være på din eksamen. Bare fordi disse spørgsmål er her, betyder det IKKE, at du vil have spørgsmål som dem på din eksamen, eller NOR betyder det endda, at du vil have spørgsmål om disse emner under din eksamen. De er bare PRAKSIS-spørgsmål!

Institut for Astronomi, University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742-2421
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Kosmologi er astronomi med stort billede - universet på dets største skalaer. Fra mysterierne om mørkt stof og mørk energi til det store kosmiske web, moderne kosmologi undersøger, hvad der får kosmos til at kryds. Læs de seneste kosmologiske nyheder her.

Vi har opdaget enkelteksoplaneter, der kredser om to stjerner, og så mange som syv eksoplaneter, der kredser om en enkelt stjerne. Vi har undersøgt de planetdannende diske, der skaber disse fremmede verdener, og vi er endda begyndt at kortlægge det fremmede vejr. Læs de seneste eksoplanetnyheder, fra superjord til varme Jupiters.


Er stjerner virkelig & ldquoburning bolde af gas & rdquo? - Astronomi

Hvorfor tegner folk stjerner med fem point, når de egentlig kun er bolde med gas?

Selvom historiestjerner er blevet repræsenteret på mange forskellige måder. En af de mest almindelige i dag er den 5-spidsede stjerne, men der er brugt 4,6,7,8 og endnu flere point. Nogle kulturer repræsenterede også stjerner mere som de ses på himlen som prikker eller små cirkler. Den 5-spidse stjerne stammer muligvis fra den måde, hvorpå egypterne repræsenterede stjernen i hyroglypics. Hvis du ser på en rigtig lys stjerne engang, bemærker du måske, at det ser ud til at have linjer, der kommer ud fra den. Disse kaldes diffraktionspikes og vises på grund af den måde, hvorpå lyset kommer ind i dit øje, hvilket er et lille cirkulært hul. (Astronomer er meget fortrolige med diffraktion, fordi det giver den grundlæggende grænse for den detalje, vi kan lave i fjerne objekter). Jeg formoder, at den spidse stjernes ultimative oprindelse er disse pigge, selvom det bare er et veluddannet gæt.

Stjernesymbolet har en rigtig rig historie og bruges ofte i en religiøs sammenhæng (for eksempel Davids stjerne eller Bethlehem-stjernen). Det er selvfølgelig også vigtigt for amerikanske borgere (og borgere i nogle andre lande) som en del af deres flag. Den faktiske oprindelse kan gå tabt, men historien vil bestemt være et interessant emne for yderligere forskning.

Denne side blev sidst opdateret den 18. juli 2015.

Om forfatteren

Karen Masters

Karen var kandidatstuderende ved Cornell fra 2000-2005. Hun fortsatte med at arbejde som forsker i galakse-redshift-undersøgelser ved Harvard University og er nu på fakultetet ved University of Portsmouth tilbage i sit hjemland i Storbritannien. Hendes forskning har for nylig fokuseret på at bruge galaksernes morfologi til at give spor til deres dannelse og udvikling. Hun er projektforsker for Galaxy Zoo-projektet.


Viser det sig at blive smækket af en supernova kan få dig til at kollapse. Hvis du & # 039 er en kometkugle.

Der er en type sky i rummet kaldet en kometkugle - en klat af tæt gas og støv, som regel et lysår eller deromkring, med en lang hale af materiale, der kan strømme i flere lysår.

De er normalt det, der kaldes a sekundær stjernedannende funktion. Hvis du har nogle enorme gasskyer, som snesevis af lysår over, kan den danne tusinder af stjerner, hvoraf nogle er massive og frygtelig lysende. En tæt blodprop af gas og støv i nærheden vil blive udsat for et angreb af højenergi ultraviolet lys fra disse stjerner, som opvarmer og ødelægger materialet, fordamper det fra den tættere del og blæser det væk. Efter et stykke tid får du en kometkugle med et tæt materialehoved og en lang hale.

Mere dårlig astronomi

Lysstrålen fra disse stjerner kan få kuglen til at kollapse og danne stjerner inde i dem - dette får det utroligt seje udtryk strålingsdrevet implosion. Alt i alt har alt dette tendens til at gøre kometkugler meget seje genstande ud.

Kometkuglen CG12 og dens indlejrede stjerneklynge NGC 5367 taget ved hjælp af et 50 cm Chilescope-teleskop. Kredit: Sebastian Voltmer

Et godt, men ejendommeligt eksempel på disse er Cometary Globule 12 eller CG 12, som ligger ca. 2.200 lysår fra Jorden. Ved første øjekast er det en klassiker af genren, en slags kugleformet kugle fyldt med et par hundrede gange massen af ​​solens værdi af gas og støv og en lang hale, der strækker sig væk i flere lysår. Det skaber stjerner inde i det, og de danner en klynge kaldet NGC 5367.

Men når du graver lidt, begynder du at finde underlige ting om det.

Det skraver stjerner inde i det, men med en langt højere hastighed end de fleste andre kugler er der sandsynligvis 60 eller flere unge stjerner i det i gennemsnit omkring 4 millioner år gamle, men med nogle så gamle som 20 millioner år. Alligevel er der ingen stor stjernedannende region i nærheden, som den er en del af. Faktisk er det placeret langt over mælkevejens plan næsten 800 lysår, mens de fleste andre tåger kan lide at holde sig inden for et par dusin lysår fra disken. Oven i alt er aldre og fordeling af stjerner inde i den sådan, at et simpelt tilfælde af strålingsdrevet implosion sandsynligvis ikke vil være årsagen til stjernefødslen eller kraften bag at blæse halen tilbage.

CG 12 og NGC 5367 (nederst til venstre) med nogle af de lysende stjerner i nærheden angivet med pile. Den ene til venstre for og lige over midten er HD 120958. Kredit: Aladin / DSS2

I 2008 offentliggjorde nogle astronomer et papir, der viste, at der er en håndfuld massive, lysende stjerner på himlen, der ser ud til at være tæt på CG 12 mod nordvest. Det nærmeste, kaldet HD 120958, er ganske udyret og er kun en halv grad væk fra det.

Men denne nærhed kunne være en illusion. To ting tæt sammen på himlen kan stadig være utroligt langt fra hinanden, men vi kan ikke fortælle det, fordi det kan være svært at få den tredje dimension.

Gå ind i Gaia. Dette europæiske observatorium i kredsløb kortlægger næsten to milliarder stjerner på himlen og får deres nøjagtige positioner, bevægelser og afstande til Jorden. Et par astronomer kiggede på Gaia-dataene for disse stjerner nær CG 12 og fandt ud af, at de alle er omtrent. 2.200 lysår fra jorden.

Whoa. Det betyder, at de er i samme afstand som CG 12 (inden for en vis usikkerhed). Mistænksom!

Der er dog stadig et problem. Den nærmeste, HD 120958 er stadig omkring 50 lysår fra kloden, hvilket er for langt til at påvirke den så stærkt.

Men her er sagen om massive lysende stjerner. De eksploderer.

Ideen er nu, at disse stjerner for omkring 20-30 millioner år siden blev født sammen i en tåge, sandsynligvis forbundet med CG 12 på en eller anden måde. En af disse stjerner var særlig massiv og brændte hurtigt igennem dets nukleare brændstof og eksploderede derefter som en supernova. KABOOM! De ydre lag af stjernen, med massen flere gange solens, fløj væk med en anstændig brøkdel af lysets hastighed. Efter nogle år overhalede de en tæt tæt blodprop af gas og støv, smækkede ind i den og komprimerede den, hvilket udløste en fecund periode med stjernedannelse i den. Det ville også have sprængt tilbage materiale fra klumpen og skabt en lang hale. Tada! CG 12.

Efter al denne tid forventer jeg, at halen forsvinder, men måske er lyset fra de nærliggende lysende stjerner nok til at holde det flydende (hvis du følger halen bagud gennem hovedet på CG 12, peger den næsten nøjagtigt på HD 120958 - faktisk, i ovenstående 2008-papir, anfører astronomerne, at stjernen måske har været en del af et binært system, hvor den ledsagende stjerne sprængte og efterlod den, vi ser). Et andet tilbageværende spørgsmål er, hvordan alt det skrammel i første omgang kom så højt ud af Mælkevejens fly. Det er virkelig underligt, og jeg har ingen ideer.

Jeg forventer, at denne supernova-forklaring er rigtig, men der er også mere at finde ud af om dette underlige og smukke objekt. Det er altid tilfældet inden for videnskab, er det ikke? Men i det mindste gav det mig en undskyldning for at tale om kometkugler og sende et utroligt smukt billede af en. Jeg undskylder ikke for det.


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Watch this beautiful, high-resolution simulation of how stars are born

In a new computer simulation called STARFORGE (pictured), an enormous cloud of gas collapses into a collection of new stars.

Northwestern University, University of Texas at Austin

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The most realistic computer simulation of star formation yet offers stunning views of what the inside of a stellar nursery might look like.

In the Star Formation in Gaseous Environments simulation, or STARFORGE, a giant virtual cloud of gas collapses into a nest of new stars. Unlike other simulations, which could render only a small clump of gas within a larger cloud, STARFORGE simulates an entire star-forming cloud. It’s also the first simulation to account for the whole medley of physical phenomena thought to influence star formation, researchers report online May 17 in Månedlige meddelelser fra Royal Astronomical Society.

“We sort of know the basic story of star formation … but the devil is in the details,” says Mike Grudić, a theoretical astrophysicist at Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill. (SN: 4/21/20). Astronomers still don’t fully understand, for instance, why stars have different masses. “If you really want to get the full picture, then you really have to just simulate the whole thing.”

STARFORGE starts with a blob of gas that can be tens to hundreds of light-years across and up to millions of times the mass of the sun. Turbulence inside the cloud creates dense pockets that collapse to forge new stars. Those stars then launch powerful jets, give off radiation, shed stellar winds and explode in supernovas. Eventually, these phenomena blow the last vestiges of the cloud away and leave behind a hive of young stars. The whole process takes millions of years — or months of computing time, even running on supercomputers.

Using STARFORGE, Grudić and colleagues have confirmed that jets launched by new stars help regulate how much material a star amasses. In simulations without jets, typical stars were about 10 times the mass of the sun — way bigger than the actual average star. “As soon as you add this jet feedback to your simulation,” Grudić says, “stellar masses start coming out more or less right on the dot for what they’re observed to be.”

The STARFORGE simulation has helped confirm that jets launched by newborn stars (simulated one shown) determine how much mass stars can accrete. Northwestern University, University of Texas at Austin

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Spitzer spies a hot spot of star formation

The nebula known as W51 is one of the most active star-forming regions in the Milky Way galaxy. First identified in 1958 by radio telescopes, it makes a rich cosmic tapestry in this image from NASA’s recently retired Spitzer Space Telescope.

Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/GLIMPSE & MIPSGAL Teams.

Located about 17,000 light-years from Earth, in the direction of the constellation Aquila in the night sky, W51 is about 350 light-years across. It is almost invisible to telescopes that collect visible light, because that light is blocked by interstellar dust clouds that lie between W51 and Earth. But longer wavelengths of light, including radio and infrared, can pass unencumbered through the dust. When viewed in infrared by Spitzer, W51 is a spectacular sight: Its total infrared emission is the equivalent of 20 million Suns.

If you could see it with your naked eye, this dense cloud of gas and dust would appear about as large as the full Moon. The Orion Nebula – another well-known star-forming region and a favourite for amateur astronomers – occupies about the same size area in the sky. But W51 is actually much farther from Earth than Orion and thus much larger, and it’s about 75 times more luminous. While Orion contains four known O-type stars – the most massive stars in the Universe – W51 contains over 30.

“Star factories” like this one can operate for millions of years. The cavernous red region on the right side of W51 is older, evident in the way it has already been carved out by winds from generations of massive stars (those at least 10 times the mass of our Sun). The dust and gas in the region are swept around even more when those stars die and explode as supernovas. On the nebula’s younger left side, many stars are just beginning to clear away the gas and dust in the same way the stars in the older region have done. It’s apparent that many of these young stars are in the process of forming bubbles of empty space around themselves.

This image was taken as part of a major observation campaign by Spitzer in 2004 to map the large-scale structure of the Milky Way galaxy – a considerable challenge because Earth lies inside it. Called the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE), the survey also turned up valuable data on many wonders within the Milky Way, including images of multiple stellar factories like W51 that were hidden by dust from visible-light observatories.

“The really spectacular images provided by Spitzer via the GLIMPSE survey ­- in concert with data from many other, complementary telescopes – give us insight into how massive stars form in our Milky Way, and then how their powerful winds and radiation interact with the remaining ambient material,” said Breanna Binder, an assistant professor of physics and astronomy at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, who studies the life cycles of massive stars. “We can’t observe star-forming regions in other galaxies in anywhere near the level of detail that we can in our own galaxy. So regions like W51 are really important for advancing our understanding of star formation in the Milky Way, which we can then extrapolate to how star formation proceeds in other, nearby galaxies.”

NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope launched 17 years ago on 25 August 2003. The spacecraft was retired on 30 January 2020.


Reflection and Emission

Near the top of the constellation Orion lies a star that you might easily pass over scanning the heavens. It’s just barely visible to the naked eye on a dark night, another white spark among thousands.

But this star, called HD 34989 (among other alphanumeric designations) is special. For one thing, it’s massive, probably 10 times the mass of our Sun. It’s also incredibly luminous, shining 15,000 times brighter than the Sun. Put that in the center of our solar system, and the global warming we’re experiencing now would seem like the deep freeze. Happily, it’s over a thousand light years away.

But in that location, it sits in the middle of a fairly large cloud of gas and dust, too. Because the star is so bright, it profoundly affects that nebula, as you can see for yourself in this exquisite photograph by Adam Block:

Adam took this picture with the 0.8 meter (32 inch) Schulman Telescope (RCOS) on Mt. Lemmon in Arizona. HD 34989 is pretty obvious it’s the intensely bright star in the middle. The gas and dust are obvious, too…but what’s the deal with those colors? Why is some of the gas red, and some blue?

I’m glad you asked. Let us reflect on this question.

There are two ways for an object to be visible. One is if it reflects light from a nearby source (which is how we see the vast majority of objects around us), and the other is if it is intrinsically giving off, or emitting, light.

The star HD 34989 is emitting light, and that light is very blue. In fact, it gives off a lot of ultraviolet light. The gas cloud has a lot of hydrogen in it, which loves to absorb that UV light. When an atom of hydrogen gets zapped with UV, the electron gets blown off the atom. But then the remaining atom (really just a proton) has a positive charge, and attracts any electron around it. If one meets up with it, they combine once again to form a neutral atom. Due to complicated quantum mechanic effects, the electron jumps down a series of discrete energy levels, a bit like a ball rolling down a staircase. Every time it does that, it gives off a little bit of light.

As it happens, one of those energy level jumps is very popular among the excited hydrogen atoms. When an electron makes that drop, it emits a photon (a particle of light) in the red part of the spectrum. This emission is called hydrogen-alpha, or H-alpha for short (or even Hα if you want to get all fancy and Greek). It’s very common in warm gas clouds where some bright star is nearby.

So in this case the gas is energized by the star, and responds by emitting that glorious red color. There is a special Hα filter astronomers use to specifically observe that light, which Adam used in this picture to enhance the glowing hydrogen. In this case, the cloud is called an emission nebula.

So where does the blue come from then? That one’s easier. It’s just the blue light of the star reflected! In this case, the culprit isn’t gas, it’s dust—thick clumps of complex molecules created when stars are born, and when they die. It’s strewn throughout the galaxy, especially where you see big gas clouds.

That dust acts a bit like a mirror. When the light from the star hits it, that light gets scattered every which way, and some of it heads toward us. The star is blue, so it makes the dust look blue. That’s called a reflection nebula.

Many times where you see a blue reflection nebula you also see red emission gas as well. Not always, but that’s clearly the case here in fact they have two different names: vdB38 for the reflection nebula and Sharpless 2-236 for the emission nebula. On Flickr I found a nice set of images showing how the reflected and emitted light can be combined to make a single image like Adam’s. You can see why astronomers use these filters it helps distinguish what’s physically happening in the nebula.

Interestingly, not all the dust in that cloud is scattering the star’s light. See that sharp ridge of red at the bottom left of the nebula, right where we start to see blue light? That’s probably the edge of a large, dense cloud of dust called a molecular cloud (those are common in that part of space). The edge of it is being lit by the star, making it look brighter. This is very similar to what lights up the Orion Nebula and other famous (and gorgeous) objects.

It’s hard to believe all that is lit by a single star, but it is. Mind you, that whole glowing gas cloud is something like five light year across—50 trillion kilometers (30 trillion miles)! But HD 34989 is a monster. Only one star in a thousand is as massive, hot, and bright as it is. Which is something you should be thankful for you don’t want to be too close to something like that…especially since, in a few million years or so, it’ll explode as a supernova. For something like that, it’s always best to be sitting at a safe distance. A thousand light years will do me just fine.


Se videoen: Le film Grande Pyramide K 2019 - Réalisateur Fehmi Krasniqi (November 2022).